Courses

SPRING 2022

AFRICAN RELIGIONS

RELA

RELA 2750 | African Religions
Hoehler-Fatton, Cynthia Heyden

DAY & TIME
Tuesday, Thursday
12:30PM - 1:45PM

DESCRIPTION
Introduces the mythology, ritual, philosophy, and religious art of the traditional religions of sub-Saharan Africa, also African versions of Christianity and African-American religions in the New World.


RELA 3073 | Religion & Society in Nigeria
Ogunnaike, Oludamini

DAY & TIME
Tuesday
3:30PM - 6:00PM

DESCRIPTION
Not only is Nigeria home to uniquely dynamic, diverse, and globally influential religious traditions, but these traditions have profoundly shaped the history, culture, and politics of the nation-state of Nigeria and its diaspora. This course examines the historical development of religious traditions in Nigeria and their interactions.


RELA 3730 | Rel in African Lit & Film
Hoehler-Fatton,Cynthia Heyden

DAY & TIME
Monday
3:30PM - 6:00PM

DESCRIPTION
An exploration of religious concepts, practices and issues as addressed in African literature and film. We will examine how various African authors and filmmakers weave aspects of Muslim, Christian and/or traditional religious cultures into the stories they tell. Course materials will be drawn from novels, memoirs, short stories, creation myths, poetry, feature-length movies, documentaries and short films.


RELA 5073 | Religion & Society in Nigeria
Ogunnaike, Oludamini

DAY & TIME
Tuesday
3:30PM - 6:00PM

DESCRIPTION
Not only is Nigeria home to uniquely dynamic, diverse, and globally influential religious traditions, but these traditions have profoundly shaped the history, culture, and politics of the nation-state of Nigeria and its diaspora. This course examines the historical development of religious traditions in Nigeria and their interactions


RELA 5094 | What is Love?
Ogunnaike, Oludamini

DAY & TIME
Thursday
3:30PM - 6:00PM

DESCRIPTION
This seminar will examine some of the most profound and influential writings about love from the Islamic intellectual and poetic traditions. Perhaps more than any other civilization, the literary and philosophical traditions of Islamic civilization have been "love-centric." In this course we will closely read and discuss various philosophies and theories of love from the mundane to the mystical.

BUDDHISM

RELB

RELB 2054 | Tibetan Buddhism Introduction
Liddle, Adam Carter

DAY & TIME
Monday, Wednesday
2:00PM - 2:50PM

DESCRIPTION
Provides a systematic introduction to Tibetan Buddhism with a strong emphasis on tantric traditions of Buddhism - philosophy, contemplation, ritual, monastic life, pilgrimage, deities & demons, ethics, society, history, and art. The course aims to understand how these various aspects of Tibetan religious life mutually shape each other to form the unique religious traditions that have pertained on the Tibetan plateau for over a thousand years.


RELB 2559 | Introduction to Buddhist Philosophy
Kachru, Sonam

DAY & TIME
Tuesday, Thursday
9:30AM - 10:45AM

DESCRIPTION
Introduction to Buddhist Philosophy: Buddhism offers more than therapeutic exercises. A source of concepts and arguments, it has contributed to a history of the mind through debates largely overlooked in Eurocentric presentations of the history of philosophy. This course provides a corrective, inviting students to think about mind, persons, self, animals, consciousness, gender, emotions, truth, logic and concepts with Buddhists philosophers of the past.


RELB 3655 | Buddhism in America
Braun, Erik C

DAY & TIME
Tuesday, Thursday
11:00AM - 12:15PM

DESCRIPTION
This course is a seminar that examines the development of Buddhism in America going from its earliest appearance to contemporary developments.


RELB 5480 | Literary Tibetan VI
Weinberger, Steven Neal

DAY & TIME
Tuesday, Thursday
12:30PM - 1:45PM

DESCRIPTION
Advanced study in the philosophical and spiritual language of Tibet, past and present. Prerequisite: RELB 5000, 5010, 5350, 5360, or equivalent.


RELB 5559 | Buddhism and Modernity
Braun, Erik C

DAY & TIME
Thursday
2:00PM - 4:30PM

DESCRIPTION
listed as new course


RELB 5810 | Literary Tibetan VIII
Weinberger, Steven Neal

DAY & TIME
Tuesday, Thursday
12:30PM - 1:45PM

DESCRIPTION
Examines the Yogachara-Svatantrika system as presented in Jang-kya's Presentation of Tenets, oral debate, and exercises in spoken Tibetan. Prerequisite: RELB 5000, 5010, 5350, 5360, 5470, 5480 or equivalent


RELB 8735 | Pali Tutorial
Braun, Erik C

DESCRIPTION
In this course students will read a selection of Pali canonical and commentarial texts.


RELB 8738 | Tutorial: Chinese Buddhism
Heller, Natasha L

DESCRIPTION
This tutorial will focus on the translation of Chinese Buddhist texts into English. Texts will be drawn from a variety of time periods, traditions, and genres. Students will gain familiarity with Buddhist Chinese, and the themes and conventions of Buddhist texts.

CHRISTIANITY

RELC

RELC 1210 | Hebrew Bible/Old Testament
Goering, Gregory Wayne Schmidt

DAY & TIME
Monday, Wednesday
10:00AM - 10:50AM

DESCRIPTION
Studies the history, literature, and religion of ancient Israel in the light of the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament. Emphasizes methods of contemporary biblical criticism. Cross listed as RELJ 1210.


RELC 2050 | Rise of Christianity
Shuve, Karl Evan

DAY & TIME
Monday, Wednesday
9:00AM - 9:50AM

DESCRIPTION
This course traces the rise of Christianity in the first millennium of the Common Era, covering the development of doctrine, the evolution of its institutional structures, and its impact on the cultures in which it flourished. Students will become acquainted with the key figures, issues, and events from this formative period, when Christianity evolved from marginal Jewish sect to the dominant religion in the Roman Empire.


RELC 2215 | Mormonism and American Culture
Flake, Kathleen

DAY & TIME
Monday, Wednesday
11:00AM - 11:50AM

DESCRIPTION
This course is designed to add substantive depth to a general understanding of American religious pluralism and insight into the socio-historical context of American religion through the study of Mormonism. In addition to introducing Mormonism's basic beliefs and practices, the course will explore issues raised by Mormonism's move toward the American mainstream while retaining its religious identity and cultural distinctiveness.


RELC 2401 | Hist of American Catholicism
Henry, James Daryn

DAY & TIME
Wednesday
3:30PM - 6:00PM

DESCRIPTION
Historical survey of American Catholicism from its colonial beginnings to the present.


RELC 2559 | Black Church and America
Parker, Kai Perry

DAY & TIME
Tuesday, Thursday
9:30AM - 10:45AM

DESCRIPTION
Black Church and America (listed as new course)


RELC 3040 | Paul: Letters and Theology
Holste, Jonathan Dunham

DAY & TIME
Tuesday, Thursday
11:00AM - 12:15PM

DESCRIPTION
Intensive study of the theological ideas and arguments of the Apostle Paul in relation to their historical and epistolary contexts.


RELC 3115 | Evangelicalism
Henry, James Daryn

DAY & TIME
Tuesday, Thursday
2:00PM - 3:15PM

DESCRIPTION
From the revivals of George Whitefield to the antebellum abolitionists to the unexpected rise of Donald Trump, Evangelicals have played a vital and contested role in American society. Evangelicalism has also burgeoned into a truly global faith tradition, with an estimated 600 million+ adherents around the world. This course presents a multidisciplinary and polyperspectival introduction to this religious movement in World Christianity.


RELC 3447 | History of Christian Ethics
Hawthorne, Laura Frances

DAY & TIME
Monday, Wednesday
3:30PM - 4:45PM

DESCRIPTION
Survey of development of Christian ethical thought and teaching from beginnings through Reformation era. Major ethical themes are traced through the centuries, as the church's scripture, evolving doctrine, and emerging tradition interact with secular society, politics, and philosophy. Readings will be taken mostly from primary texts, such as the Bible and the writings of selected Christian thinkers.


RELC 3465 | Religion, Reform, Democracy
Warren, Heather A

DAY & TIME
Monday, Wednesday
2:00PM - 3:15PM

DESCRIPTION
This course examines the history of the interplay between theology, morality, social movements, and politics in America. Topics covered include temperance and prohibition, abolition, labor, civil rights, anti-war and pacifism, and environmentalism. Lecture, weekly readings (often a book), class presentations, short papers, and original research.


RELC 8559 | The New Testament II
Spittler, Janet Elizabeth

DAY & TIME
Monday, Wednesday, Friday
10:00AM - 10:50AM

DESCRIPTION
listed as new course

GENERAL RELIGIOUS STUDIES

RELG

RELG 1400 | Human Flourishing

DESCRIPTION
This course explores human flourishing, well-being, and resiliency across academic, personal, and professional spheres. The course presents a balance of theory and practice, organized into five domains: self-awareness, well-being, connection, wisdom, and integration. Each week explores a single quality of flourishing through scientific research, humanistic reflection, and artistic expression, as well as a detailed set of contemplative practices.


RELG 1500 | Intro Sem Religious Studies
Alexander, Elizabeth S

DAY & TIME
Wednesday
3:30PM - 6:00PM

DESCRIPTION
Spring 2022 topic: What is Religion? These seminars introduce first- and second-year students to the academic study of religion through a close study of a particular theme or topic. Students will engage with material from a variety of methodological perspectives, and they will learn how to critically analyze sources and communicate their findings. The seminars allow for intensive reading and discussion of material. Not more than two Intro Seminars may count towards the Major.


RELG 1559 | Contemplative Lab

DAY & TIME
Wednesday
4:00PM - 4:50PM

DESCRIPTION
Contemplative Lab (listed as new course)


RELG 2160 | Religion in America Since 1865
Warren, Heather A

DAY & TIME
Monday, Wednesday
10:00AM - 10:50AM

DESCRIPTION
Includes American religious pluralism, religious responses to social issues, and the character of contemporary American religious life.


RELG 2210 | Religion Ethics & Environment
Jenkins, Willis Jackson

DAY & TIME
Tuesday, Thursday
11:00AM - 12:15PM

DESCRIPTION
This course interprets humanity's changing ecological relationships through religious and philosophical traditions. It takes up ethical questions presented by environmental problems, introduces frameworks for making sense of them, and examines the symbols and narratives that shape imaginations of nature.


RELG 2380 | Faith & Doubt in Modern Age
Marsh Jr., Charles Robert

DAY & TIME
Tuesday
2:00PM - 3:15PM

DESCRIPTION
This course introduces undergraduates to seminal writings in modern Western thought that explore and question the meaning, truthfulness, and uses of religious belief. The goal is to develop a multi-storied narrative of the variety of interpretations given to the idea of God in modernity and to clarify the conditions of responsible religious belief in a pluralistic world. Requirements include two exams and a research paper.


RELG 2630 | Business Ethics and Society
Mathewes, Charles T

DAY & TIME
Tuesday, Thursday
11:00AM - 12:15PM

DESCRIPTION
This course studies how to be a moral agent in a market society. It attends to how economic issues influence different spheres of human life, both public and private, and discusses the ethics of a professional career, the moral obligations of corporations, the nature of inequality, the economic ethics of major world traditions, and how to live a morally sane human life in a market system.


RELG 2650 | Theological Bioethics
Henry, James Daryn

DAY & TIME
Monday, Wednesday
2:00PM - 2:50PM

DESCRIPTION
Analyzes various moral problems in medicine, health care, and global health from Christian (Catholic and Protestant), Jewish, and Islamic theological perspectives with reference to salient philosophical influences.


RELG 2660 | Spirituality in America
Hedstrom, Matthew Sigurd

DAY & TIME
Monday, Wednesday
2:00PM - 2:50PM

DESCRIPTION
This course asks: what does "spiritual but not religious" mean, and why has it become such a pervasive idea in modern America? We'll study everything from AA to yoga to Zen meditation, with stops in Christian rock, Beat poetry, Abstract Expressionist painting and more. In the end, we'll come to see spirituality in America as a complex intermingling of the great world religions, modern psychology, and a crassly commercialized culture industry.


RELG 2715 | Intro to Chinese Religion
Heller, Natasha L

DAY & TIME
Monday, Wednesday
2:00PM - 3:15PM

DESCRIPTION
This course serves as an introduction to the religious beliefs and practices of China, Taiwan, and the Chinese diaspora. The course covers several broad themes in Chinese religion, including ritual, self-cultivation, means of communicating with the gods, and the intersection of political authority and religion. We will engage with textual, material, and visual traditions.


RELG 3200 | Martin, Malcolm and America
Hadley, Mark Andrew

DAY & TIME
Tuesday, Thursday
9:30AM - 10:45AM

DESCRIPTION
An analysis of African-American social criticism centered upon, but not limited to, the life and thought of Martin Luther King, Jr. and Malcolm X.


RELG 3405 | Black & Womanist Relg Thought
Crawley, Ashon Thomas

DAY & TIME
Monday
3:30PM - 6:00PM

DESCRIPTION
Is thought always already racialized, gendered, sexed? This Introduction to Black and Womanist Thought course argues that thought does not have to submit itself to modern regimes of knowledge production, that there are alternative ways to think and practice and be in the world with one another. An introduction to major thinkers in both religious thought and traditions with attention to theology, philosophy, and history.


RELG 3416 | Sustainability and Asceticism
Allen, Michael S

DAY & TIME
Tuesday, Thursday
2:00PM - 3:15PM

DESCRIPTION
To what extent does the pursuit of sustainability require restraining or retraining our desires? How can people be encouraged to consume less, or in less destructive ways, when cultures of consumption prove resistant to change? This seminar will explore these questions from the perspective of South Asian traditions (Hindu, Buddhist, and Jain). We will consider classical sources as well as contemporary debates about sustainable development.


RELG 3559 | Advice and Dissent: Religious Narratives of Personal and Political Significance
Nemec, John William

DAY & TIME
Tuesday, Thursday
12:30PM - 1:45PM

DESCRIPTION
listed as new course


RELG 3605 | Religion, Violence & Strategy
White, Gerard B

DAY & TIME
Monday
5:00PM - 7:30PM

DESCRIPTION
This course will teach students to evaluate critically the leadership and strategies of social impact campaigns, and the ways in which governments, religious actors and civil society have tried to reduce violent conflict. Students will be organized into small integrated teams to research the root causes and triggers for religion-related violence across the Middle East and North Africa.


RELG 3960 | Religion and the Black Freedom
Parker, Kai Perry

DAY & TIME
Tuesday
3:30PM - 6:00PM

DESCRIPTION
This course will explore the role of religion in the black freedom struggle in the United States, with a focus on the twentieth century to the present. We will consider the question, how have black people harnessed religion to conceptualize and fight for various notions of black progress and the salvation of black people (broadly construed) amid the persistence of racial inequality?


RELG 4500 | Majors Seminar
Bouchard, Larry D

DAY & TIME
Thursday
2:00PM - 4:30PM

DESCRIPTION
Introduces the study of religion as an interdisciplinary subject, utilizing methods in history of religions, theology, sociology, depth psychology, and literary criticism. The seminars are thematic and topics will vary according to the design of the instructor. Limited to twenty religious studies majors. RELG4810: This seminar seeks to develop a close reading of major religious poetry by two major religious poets.


RELG 4810 | Poetry and Theology
Hart, Kevin John

DAY & TIME
Tuesday, Thursday
9:30AM - 10:45AM


RELG 5070 | Interpretation Theory
Bouchard, Larry D

DAY & TIME
Tuesday
3:30AM - 6:00PM

DESCRIPTION
Analyzes existentialist, phenomenological, structuralist, literary, historical, and psychological approaches to the interpretation of texts, especially narrative religious texts; and the interactions of language, history, and understanding.


RELG 5240 | Prob in Philosophy of Religion
Kachru, Sonam

DAY & TIME
Friday
2:00PM - 4:30PM

DESCRIPTION
Examines classic and contemporary discussions of problems in the philosophy of religion.


RELG 5821 | Prosem World Relig World Lit
Fowler, Elizabeth

DAY & TIME
Wednesday
2:00PM - 3:00PM

DESCRIPTION
This monthly seminar explores methods and issues vital to the combined study of literatures and religions. It brings all MA students together, under faculty guidance, to attend to the broad range of individual projects and to foster a rich conversation that traverses the emergent field of study.


RELG 5835 | Ethnography Study of Religion
Ochs, Vanessa L

DAY & TIME
Wednesday
3:30PM - 6:00PM

DESCRIPTION
This course familiarizes students with a range of ways of studying practice in religions as it is evidenced in sacred texts, religious artifacts, images and locations; as it is chronicled in historical documents; as it is reflected in literary and artistic creations; and as it revealed in contemporary practice.


RELG 5860 | Evil and Suffering
Geddes, Jennifer Leslie

DAY & TIME
Thursday
6:00PM - 8:30PM

DESCRIPTION
This course will explore the interrelations between evil and suffering of 20th- and 21st- century European and American thinkers, theologians, and theorists, as well as literary authors and artists, with particular attention to the Holocaust and American slavery.


RELG 7460 | Religion and Modernity
Mathewes, Charles T

DAY & TIME
Wednesday
2:00PM - 4:30PM

DESCRIPTION
This interdisciplinary class acquaints graduate students with landmark texts that consider the place, significance, and purpose of religion in late modernity. Focusing on works written over the last few decades, it draws on multiple genres of study: philosophy, anthropology, social science, religious studies, and theological inquiry.


RELG 7559 | Religion and Politics in the 20th C US
Hedstrom, Matthew Sigurd

DAY & TIME
Monday
3:30PM - 6:00PM

DESCRIPTION
listed as new course


RELG 8704 | Themes & Topics in Rel Ethics
Jenkins, Willis Jacksonbr />

DESCRIPTION
Tutorial on important themes, topics, and figures in religious ethics, both historically and in the present moment.

HINDUISM

RELH

RELH 2090 | Hinduism
Nemec, John William

DAY & TIME
Tuesday, Thursday
2:00PM - 2:50PM

DESCRIPTION
Surveys the Hindu religious heritage from pre-history to the 17th century; includes the Jain and Sikh protestant movements.


RELH 3426 | The History of Yoga
Allen, Michael S

DAY & TIME
Tuesday, Thursday
11:00AM - 12:15PM

DESCRIPTION
Yoga is practiced by millions of people across the world and comes in an astonishing variety of forms. Historically, yoga has roots in ancient Indian practices of asceticism and meditation. But how are these practices related to yoga as it practiced today? This seminar will trace the history of yoga from its earliest origins to the present. Readings will include both primary sources (in translation) and works of contemporary scholarship.

ISLAM

RELI

RELI 2024 | Jewish-Muslim Relations
Andruss, Jessica H

DAY & TIME
Tuesday, Thursday
11:00AM - 12:15PM

DESCRIPTION
Jewish and Muslim communities share a complex history of interaction, spanning from seventh-century Arabia to the present day, and including instances of collaboration as well as moments of violence. Our course examines this dynamic relationship through documentary and literary sources. We focus on points of contact between Muslims and Jews in contexts ranging from battlefields to universities, from religious discourse to international politics.


RELI 2085 | Modern Islam

DAY & TIME
Tuesday, Thursday
9:30AM - 10:45AM

DESCRIPTION
Surveys Islamic history from the "age of the great empires" (Ottoman, Safavid, Mughal) to the colonial period and up to the present day, including Islam in America. Islamic life and thought will be examined from multiple angles -- including popular piety and spirituality, philosophy and theology, law, gender, art, architecture, and literature -- with particular attention paid to the rise of modern Islamic "fundamentalist" movements.


RELI 3559 | Muslim Misfits
Salomon, Noah

DAY & TIME
Tuesday, Thursday
2:00PM - 3:15PM

DESCRIPTION
Muslim Misfits: "Islam began strange and will return to being strange as it began. So blessings to the strange ones!" So goes a famous saying of the Prophet Muhammad, celebrating the virtue of truth over conformity. This course examines Islamic movements that have sought to push back against religious and political norms of their times. Along the way, we read debates about orthodoxy: what are the limits of the Muslim community and how are such limits contested?


RELI 5094 | What is Love?
Ogunnaike, Oludamini

DAY & TIME
Thursday
3:30PM -6:00PM

DESCRIPTION
This seminar will examine some of the most profound and influential writings about love from the Islamic intellectual and poetic traditions. Perhaps more than any other civilization, the literary and philosophical traditions of Islamic civilization have been "love-centric." In this course we will closely read and discuss various philosophies and theories of love from the mundane to the mystical.


RELI 5425 | Islamic Philosophy & Theology
Nair, Shankar Ayillath

DAY & TIME
Tuesday
3:30PM - 6:00PM

DESCRIPTION
This course surveys the major developments within Islamic philosophy and theology from the classical to the early modern periods. Topics covered include the early theological schools (Ash'aris, Maturidis, Mu'tazilis), the transmission of Greek philosophy into Arabic, Peripatetic philosophy, Illuminationism, Shi'ite philosophy, and philosophical Sufism, concluding with the challenges faced by Islamic philosophy through the colonial and modern eras. This course has no prerequisites, but some previous experience in either Islamic studies or philosophy will be helpful.

JUDAISM

RELJ

RELJ 1210 | Hebrew Bible/Old Testament
Goering, Gregory Wayne Schmidt

DAY & TIME
Monday, Wednesday
10:00AM - 10:50AM

DESCRIPTION
Studies the history, literature, and religion of ancient Israel in the light of the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament. Emphasizes methods of contemporary biblical criticism. Cross listed as RELC 1210.


RELJ 1420 | Elementary Biblical Hebrew II
Goering, Gregory Wayne Schmidt

DAY & TIME
Monday, Wednesday
2:00PM - 3:15PM

DESCRIPTION
Second half of a year-long introduction to biblical Hebrew, using an innovative language-learning approach. Through communicative activities in an immersive environment, students acquire oral and aural capacities naturally, internalize the language, and efficiently develop the ability to read biblical Hebrew prose with immediate comprehension. Students complete Jonah by semester's end and master basic Hebrew grammar, syntax, and vocabulary.


RELJ 2024 | Jewish-Muslim Relations
Andruss, Jessica H

DAY & TIME
Tuesday, Thursday
11:00AM - 12:15PM

DESCRIPTION
Jewish and Muslim communities share a complex history of interaction, spanning from seventh-century Arabia to the present day, and including instances of collaboration as well as moments of violence. Our course examines this dynamic relationship through documentary and literary sources. We focus on points of contact between Muslims and Jews in contexts ranging from battlefields to universities, from religious discourse to international politics.


RELJ 2030 | Judaism, Roots and Rebellion
Alexander, Elizabeth S

DAY & TIME
Monday, Wednesday, Friday
1:00PM - 1:50PM

DESCRIPTION
What does it mean to construct one's identity in dialogue with ancient texts and traditions? Can the gap between ancient and contemporary be bridged? Or must texts and traditions born of a remote time and place remain hopelessly irrelevant to contemporary life? This course explores these questions by examining the myriad ways that contemporary Jews balance the complexities of modern life with the demands of an ancient heritage.


RELJ 2420 | Intermed Biblical Hebrew II
Goering, Gregory Wayne Schmidt

DAY & TIME
Friday
10:00AM - 12:30PM

DESCRIPTION
Readings in the prose narratives and poetry of the Hebrew Bible. Emphasizes grammar, vocabulary, and syntax. Attention to issues of translation and interpretation. Prerequisite: HEBR/RELJ 2410 or the equivalent.


RELJ 3052 | Responses to the Holocaust
Geddes, Jennifer Leslie

DAY & TIME
Thursday
2:00PM - 4:30PM

DESCRIPTION
Responses to the Holocaust (this is all that’s listed on SIS and Lou’s list)


RELJ 3170 | Modern Jewish Thought
Biemann, Asher D

DAY & TIME
Tuesday, Thursday
12:30PM - 1:45PM

DESCRIPTION
This course offers an introduction into the major themes of Modern Jewish Thought.


RELJ 3390 | Jewish Feminism
Ochs, Vanessa L

DAY & TIME
Tuesday, Thursday
9:30AM - 10:45AM

DESCRIPTION
Jewish Feminism (this is all that’s listed on SIS and Lou’s list)


RELJ 3559 | Jewish Thinkers in America
Biemann, Asher D

DAY & TIME
Wednesday
3:30PM - 6:00PM

DESCRIPTION
listed as new course


RELJ 5559 | New Course: RELJ
Andruss, Jessica H

DAY & TIME
Thursday
2:00PM - 4:30PM

DESCRIPTION
listed as new course


RELJ 8757 | Theopolitics: Mod Judaism III
Biemann, Asher D

DESCRIPTION
This tutorial, the third in a sequence on theopolitical thought in Modern Judaism, will focus on 20th-century Jewish philosophers, especially Hermann Cohen, Martin Buber, Leo Baeck, and Franz Rosenzweig. Their distinct views on the state, the nation, and the theocratic community, as well as how modern Christian thought grappled with similar questions, will be analyzed in the context of a crisis of politics during the interwar period.